August 3, 1908 (a Monday)

Marcellin Boule’s vision in 1909 of Stone Age Man.

On this date, a nearly complete, buried skeleton of a Neandertal was discovered in a cave at La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France by two young clergymen, brothers Amédée and Jean Bouyssonie. It was examined by Marcellin Boule who overlooked its arthritic condition and as a result, his published description, which characterized the Neandertal as a shuffling, bent-kneed, and hairy creature capable of “rudimentary intellectual abilities,” became stereotypical.

Sculpture of a Neandertal man from the Ancestors exhibit at the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico.

This mistake was corrected by research in the 1950s.

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